On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  Seven other states have signed the Paris Agreement, but have not ratified it. With ratification by the European Union, the agreement obtained enough parts to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In 2018, Saudi Arabia signed a Memorandum of Understanding with SoftBank Group to build 200 GW of solar power by 2030. In previous evaluations, we had considered this project in a “planned policy” scenario. In October 2018, there were reports that the project had been frozen, but the Saudi government refuted it. But since then, there has been no evolution. Given the lack of progress and the new renewable energy targets announced by the Saudi government in 2019, we believe that the likelihood of this project progressing is low. We have therefore removed this megaproject from our emissions projections as a separate scenario from Planned Policies. Saudi Arabia`s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) plans tabled at the United Nations earlier this month indicate that if the consequences of the Paris Agreement created an “abnormal burden” on its economy, the world`s largest oil exporter would weaken its climate commitment between 2016 and 2020. On June 1, 2017, U.S.
President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  In accordance with Article 28, on the 4th If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC by leaving the UNFCCC, it could be immediately denounced (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially communicated to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has the legal right to do so.  The invitation to resign could only be presented after the agreement entered into force for the United States for three years in 2019.   The EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference was expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification simultaneously to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations belonging exclusively to each other, and some feared that there would be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. Just like the British vote to leave the EU, the Paris Pact could be delayed.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on or after 2020. .